INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET

Looking at the script, it seems that the INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET is what Henry Higgins would be most likely to use.  

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It has been used since 1888, when it was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language.  

In addition to being used by linguists and Speech-Language Pathologists, it is also used by singers and actors.

The IPA is noted for representing only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in oral language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables.
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It even includes qualities of speech like tooth-gnashing, lisping, and the sounds made with the cleft palate.
 
Letters and diacritics are the two basic types of symbols.  
 
Letters are divided into pulmonic consonants, non-pulmonic consonants, and vowels, while diacritics.  
 
Diacritics are small markings placed around letters to specify the pronunciation.
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This is its official handbook, as released by the IPA, which I think is available in the Northwestern Library — if that would be of any interest: http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1159392/?site_locale=en_GB
 
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